THC utile per prevenire la perdita della vista

I risultati scientifici riportano che i composti chimici trovati nella cannabis possono prevenire la perdita della vista.

La pigmentazione retinica è una malattia genetica dell’occhio, con conseguente grave perdita di visione e cecità. La malattia colpisce 1 su 4.000 persone e peggiora le cellule della retina, chiamate fotorecettori.

In uno studio pubblicato sul Journal of Experimental Research si mostra come gli ingredienti chimici trovati nella cannabis noti come cannabinoidi hanno la capacità di rallentare questo processo pigmentoso.

Utilizzando la forma sintetica del tetraidrocannabinolo (THC), il principio attivo responsabile per l’effetto psicoattivo della pianta, gli scienziati presso l’ Università di Alicante , in Spagna sono stati in grado di prevenire la perdita della vista nei ratti affetti da questa malattia.

“Questi dati suggeriscono che i cannabinoidi sono potenzialmente utili nel ritardare la degenerazione della retina nei pazienti con retinite pigmentosa”, ha affermato il  Dr. Nicholas Quensa.

Alla fine del giorno 90, i ratti che ricevevano il trattamento THC hanno eseguito meglio le prove visive e hanno avuto più di 40% di fotorecettori rispetto ai ratti che non avevano la fortuna di ricevere il trattamento. Inoltre, sembra che il THC abbia protetto molte altre parti della struttura della maglia, compresi gli strati interni della retina.

Anche se questi risultati sono molto incoraggianti, non sono una sorpresa. Come noto il gruppo di cannabinoidi ha fornito un trattamento promettente in numerose malattie degenerative che vanno dalla malattia di Parkinson a diabete o malattie cardiovascolari.

In realtà esistono già molte esposizioni che dimostrano l’esistenza di percorsi cannabinoidi negli occhi. Già negli anni ’70, gli scienziati hanno osservato effetti abbastanza interessanti e positivi sul trattamento delle malattie oftalmiche con la cannabis.

Uno studio pubblicato nel 1978 ha scoperto che la cannabis aveva causato una regolazione ritardata dell’allievo, e gli scienziati hanno detto che “i cannabinoidi influiscono direttamente sulla ripresa della retina”.

L’ultimo studio ha esaminato i meccanismi dietro i benefici dei cannabinoidi nella pigmentazione della retina; gli scienziati sperano di continuare la ricerca.

Written by Stefano Armanasco

 

 

 

 

http://beleafmagazine.it/2017/10/27/thc-utile-prevenire-la-perdita-della-vista/

Uno studio su larga scala afferma che una dieta ricca di sodio non aumenta il rischio di sviluppare la SM

flipout4ms

Cari lettori, vi sono attualmente continue ricerche su fattori ambientali e nutrizionali che possono prevenire o peggiorare la sclerosi multipla. In questi ultimi anni, tra i composti considerati a maggior rischio per lo sviluppo della SM, è stato preso in esame il cloruro di sodio, ovvero il comune sale da cucina. L’azione sarebbe dovuta ad un’attivazione di specifiche cellule T helper, le già più volte citate Th17, ancora poco conosciute nei loro molteplici meccanismi d’azione. Nel 2015, uno studio americano ha condotto uno studio osservazionale su 70 pazienti con SMRR recidivante remittente, controllando l’escrezione urinaria di tale sostanza per un periodo di due anni. Al termine dello studio, i ricercatori hanno osservato una correlazione proporzionale tra i livelli di sodio assunto e l’esacerbazione delle pousseès, con un aumento di 2,75 volte in pazienti con assunzione media di sale, e di 3,95 volte nei pazienti con il più elevato consumo di cloruro…

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Study: Cannabinoid Spray Helps Calm Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injuries

New research indicates Sativex – a cannabis-derived pharmaceutical – can mitigate spasticity associated with prolonged spinal cord injury.

Conducted by a group of Spanish doctors from the Hospital Universitario y Politécnico, La Fe, Valencia, Spain, a six-month study revealed that Sativex (a cannabinoid-based spray) may provide relief where Western medicine has failed.

Sativex Study

A comparatively small observational study, 15 patients participated in the “orally administered drug delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol” research. The study found that patients diagnosed with chronic spinal cord injuries with refractory spasticity benefited from the cannabis-based medicine.

According to the abstract published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, the analyzed variables were measured by utilizing four different scales: “modified Ashworth scale, Penn spasm frequency scale, Numeric Rating Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale for pain. Additionally, clinical variables and side effects of the treatment were also collected.”

Sativex Research Results

“Fifteen patients took part in this study. A significant improvement was observed on three of the scales recorded: modified Ashworth scale (z = -2.97; p = 0.003), Penn spasm frequency scale (z = -2.76; p = 0.006) and Numeric Rating Scale (z = -3.21; p = 0.001). The use of the drug was withdrawn in two patients due to side effects.”

While the study concluded Sativex benefits those suffering from spasticity associated with chronic spinal cord injury, and for whom therapeutic measures have been inadequate, it also noted that “further studies need to be conducted before the use of this drug can be recommended.”

 

Manufactured and distributed by GW Pharmaceuticals, the cannabinoid-based spray was found to be effectual in a 2014 study at quelling spasticity suffered by multiple sclerosis patients.

 

 

https://www.marijuana.com/news/2017/09/study-cannabinoid-spray-helps-calm-spasticity-in-spinal-cord-injuries/

University to study medical cannabis as opioid alternative

On the same day that President Donald Trump labeled opioid-related deaths a “national health emergency,” word spread that the University of Florida Health will study the medical benefits of cannabis as a possible alternative to the narcotic.

The school’s doctors will also study MMJ’s benefits for HIV patients.

The five-year study is being funded by a $3.2 million grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, according to Gainesville TV station WUFT.

One reason for the study, said lead researcher Dr. Robert Cook, is to determine if medical cannabis can be a viable alternative for HIV patients and others who may be prescribed opioid painkillers.

Patients who partake in the study must provide their own cannabis, and the study will focus on both the pros and cons of MMJ effects, Cook told WUFT. The study will involve only patients in Florida.

Many existing patients in several states with functional medical cannabis markets use cannabis to wean themselves off much harder narcotics, and marijuana has become increasingly seen by many in the MMJ industry as an off-ramp drug as opposed to a gateway drug.

 

 

https://mjbizdaily.com/university-florida-study-medical-cannabis-opioid-alternative/

Sessions: Drug addiction starts with marijuana. Trump: Just say no

“It’s not a harmless drug,” Sessions says of cannabis

By Christopher Ingraham, The Washington Post

Speaking at separate events Thursday, Attorney General Jeff Sessions and President Donald Trump delivered remarks on drug policy that matched messaging straight out of the 1980s.

“We’ve got to re-establish first a view that you should say ‘no’ – people should say ‘no’ to drug abuse,” Attorney General Jeff Sessions said at the Heritage Foundation, echoing former first lady Nancy Reagan’s famous line.

Sessions said he thinks the country has become “lackadaisical” about drug use. In the past he has railed against permissive attitudes toward marijuana use, praised mandatory minimum sentences for drug criminals and spoken fondly of “20 years almost of hostility to drugs that began really when Reagan started ‘Just Say No.’”

At Heritage, Sessions also spoke approvingly of the “gateway theory” of drug abuse, popular among 80s-era anti-drug crusaders, which states that marijuana use becomes a “gateway” to harder drugs.

“When you talk to police chiefs, consistently they say much of the addiction starts with marijuana,” Sessions said. “It’s not a harmless drug.”

Trump echoed some of these thoughts later at the White House. He promised that “if we can teach young people, and people generally, not to start (taking drugs), it’s really, really easy not to take them.” He added that “there is nothing desirable about drugs. They’re bad.”

But the research on drug policy has come a long way since the Reagan days.

As a slogan, “just say no” informed national anti-drug programs such as DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), which attempted to educate children on the dangers of drug use. The phrase was even turned into a board game.

But the problem with simply telling kids (or adults) to say “no” to drugs is that research shows it doesn’t work. Study after study has demonstrated that programs such as DARE not only didn’t reduce drug use, but in some cases may have actually inspired certain kids to experiment with illicit substances.

The gateway theory is also far from universally accepted. The National Institute on Drug Abuse says “further research is needed to explore this question,” noting that the overwhelming majority of people who try marijuana do not go on to use other drugs.

Other researchers point out that most people try alcohol or tobacco well before they try marijuana or any other drug, which would make the true “gateway drugs” 100 percent legal. Other studies have pointed to socioeconomic conditions and even drug enforcement policies as better predictors of hard drug use than marijuana.

Most Americans have also come to understand the “drugs are bad” mantra as overly simplistic. Alcohol, after all, is a drug, one that 70 percent of Americans say “yes” to in any given year. Marijuana is another drug that nearly two-thirds of Americans say should be legalized – a percentage that has risen even as Sessions has made his skepticism of legalization very public.

Ironically, marijuana may even have a role to play in mitigating the opiate epidemic, as numerous studies have shown that medical and recreational marijuana laws are associated with decreases in opiate dependency and overdose.

While the attorney general says the public has become “lackadaisical” about drugs, in reality the public’s thinking on the issue has become more nuanced. But that nuance has, so far, been missing in the Trump administration’s approach to the current drug epidemic.

 

 

 

http://www.thecannabist.co/2017/10/27/trump-sessions-drugs-marijuana/91052/

70% SPIKE IN CANNABIS USE AMONG BABY BOOMERS IN THE PAST DECADE

OVER 50 CROWD USING MARIJUANA AT A HIGHER RATE THEN EVER BEFORE, 70% INCREASE BETWEEN 2006 AND 2013

‘We are facing a never before seen cohort of older adults who use recreational drugs’ say researchers. An unprecedented number of older people are using illegal recreational drugs in the US, according to a study which has revealed a 70 % spike in cannabis use among Baby Boomers in the past decade.

Dr Joseph J. Palamar

“For years we’ve been worried about the potential effects of marijuana on the developing brains of teens, but now we may need a bit more focus on their grandparents, who are increasingly more likely to be current users,” said Dr Joseph J. Palamar of New York University, one of the lead authors of the study.

The Study

Researchers evaluated responses from 47,140 US over 50 adults who took part in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The study published in Addiction revealed a 71 per cent increase in marijuana use among adults between 2006 and 2013, particularly among those aged between 50 and 64. Men were also shown to be more likely to use the drug than women.

“Given the unprecedented aging of the US population, we are facing a never before seen cohort of older adults who use recreational drugs,” commented Dr Benjamin Han, a geriatrician and health services researcher at NYU.

Dr Benjamin Han

He stated there is a “urgent” need to understand the prevalence of cannabis use among older generations, and how it affects their health, particularly when combined with prescription drugs and other illegal substances.

 

“We found only five percent of these older adults felt using marijuana once or twice a week was a great risk to their health” said Dr Joseph J. Palamar of NYU.“Apparently very few Baby Boomers consider marijuana use risky. But after all, this was the generation who was there, in the late 1960s, when the counterculture revolution exploded marijuana into mainstream popularity.”
Most people in the study tried marijuana at the age of 18, meaning they have continued their habit since then or have started using cannabis again more recently.

 

 

 

https://medicalmarijuana411.com/70-spike-cannabis-use-among-baby-boomers-past-decade/?utm_source=newsletter102617&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=dailydose&utm_content=readmore

This is Why Uruguay’s Hemp Crop Is Slated to Triple

It was only three months ago that Uruguay gave the green light for pharmacies to sell recreational marijuana, but now it looks like the country’s budding hemp crop is going to expand as well.

According to Bloomberg, is slated to plant three times more hemp through the remainder of the year. The country’s Agriculture Ministry jumped from last year’s hemp crop of 400 hectares and approved nine companies to plant a total of 1,200 hectares of hemp this year, including the International Cannabis Corp. (TSXV: ICC).

Uruguay was the first country to legalize recreational marijuana, though it hasn’t been an easy process. U.S. banks are refraining from doing business with local Uruguayan banks that work with cultivators and distributors. For this reason, hemp could be a safer option for those who want to invest.

According to Sergio Vazquez, an employee at the Agriculture Ministry, investors are planning to use hemp flowers to extract cannabidiol, which will then be exported and processed into nutritional products.

Health Minister Jorge Basso

Two companies have already reached out to the government with proposals to construct extraction laboratories, Health Minister Jorge Basso told news outlets earlier this month.

Vazquez suggested that commercial CBD could be exported as soon as the beginning of 2018.

“The labs are going to be the locomotive that pulls the wagons of this industry,” Vazquez said. “Planting isn’t going to explode until the labs need a lot of flowers.”

 

 

 

http://mjinews.com/uruguay-hemp-crop-slated-triple/

This Will Be the Largest Study on How Marijuana Affects HIV Symptoms

While some data has been collected on how marijuana affects HIV symptoms, there has yet to be a large-scale study on the topic; however, researchers at the University of Florida are getting ready to change that.

Robert L. Cook

 

According to the UF Department of Epidemiology, the National Institute on Drug Abuse recently awarded a $3.2 million grant to Robert L. Cook, MD, MPH, Professor in Epidemiology, Director of the Southern HIV and Alcohol Research Consortium and Chair of the Florida Consortium for HIV/AIDS Research, to study how marijuana affects HIV symptoms in Floridian patients.

“Marijuana use is increasingly common in persons living with HIV infection. Yet, past findings regarding the health impact of marijuana use on HIV have been limited and inconclusive,” Cook said, as reported by UF Health. “The long-term goal of this research is to provide patients, clinicians and public health authorities with information to guide clinical and safety recommendations for marijuana use.”

Four hundred Floridians suffering from HIV who currently use marijuana will participate in the five-year study, which UF Health believes will be the largest and most comprehensive research conducted to date on how marijuana affects HIV symptoms. The study will also investigate HIV viral suppression, levels of HIV particles in the blood, chronic inflammation markers, cognitive and behavioral elements and quality of life.

According to UF Health, Florida has the highest rate in the United States for new HIV infections and the third-highest number of HIV patients, with almost half being 50 or older, so the launch of this study comes at a critical time for the Sunshine State.

“We expect the study to contribute to clinical and public health guidelines, while also addressing knowledge gaps about how much marijuana is ‘too much’ and how the effects of marijuana may be different in older individuals,” Cook said.

The voters of Florida approved medical marijuana legalization on Nov. 8, 2016, with HIV/AIDS included as a qualifying condition.

 

http://mjinews.com/study-how-marijuana-affects-hiv-symptoms/

Latest Gallup poll: Americans favor marijuana legalization more than ever

64 percent of adult survey respondents said they thought the use of marijuana should be made legal

By Alicia Wallace, The Cannabist Staff

Americans’ support for marijuana legalization has reached a new high, the latest Gallup poll shows.

Gallup poll results released Wednesday found that 64 percent of adult survey respondents said they thought the use of marijuana should be made legal. It’s the highest total in Gallup’s nearly 50 years of posing the question.

It’s also the first time that a majority of Republican respondents favored legalization.

The Gallup survey asked the following question: “Do you think the use of marijuana should be made legal, or not?” No distinction was made between the medical use or recreational use of cannabis.

The survey of 1,028 Americans over the age of 18 also found that 51 percent of respondents with Republican political affiliation said they supported legal marijuana. That’s up from 42 percent in 2016. Although more Democrats favored legalization — up to 72 percent from 67 percent — support fell among Independents to 67 percent from 70 percent.

“The steady increase in the support for legalized marijuana over the past 12 years, from 36 percent to 64 percent, is one of the most dramatic changes in public opinion in such a short period of time we have monitored in Gallup’s history,” Frank Newport, Gallup’s editor in chief, said in a statement emailed to The Cannabist.

“Part of the explanation lies with attitudes following the real world, as more states and jurisdictions made the decision to legalize marijuana and as that reality becomes widely known. Part lies with a general liberalizing shift in Americans’ attitudes towards a number of values issues, including same sex marriage, unwed motherhood, and teenagers having sexual relations.

“And part of the explanation could lie with the shifting demographics of the country, with the decreasing impact of older Americans, particularly those 65 and up, who are by far the least likely to approve of legalization.”

When Gallup first posed the marijuana legalization question in October 1969, only 12 percent of respondents were in favor. A whopping 84 percent sat opposed.

The levels of support slowly climbed in the decades that followed, settling in at 25 percent in the 1980s and 1990s and in the mid-30 percent range during the early 2000s.

Fourteen years ago, public opinion was an inverse image of where it’s at today: 64 percent of adults surveyed opposed marijuana legalization, 34 percent said it should be legal and 2 percent had no opinion.

Public opinion has been in step with successful marijuana legalization efforts across the United States, Gallup officials said.

In late November 2012, following the states of Colorado and Washington voting to legalize the recreational use of marijuana, the Gallup marijuana poll showed support of legalization at 48 percent. That climbed to 58 percent by October 2013.

Last year — in advance of nine states voting on legalization measures, eight of which passed — Americans favored legalization at a level of 60 percentA Quinnipiac poll released in Augustshowed that 61 percent of those polled agreed that “the use of marijuana should be made legal in the United States.”

The Gallup poll released Wednesday was conducted Oct. 5 through 11. The margin of sampling error was plus or minus 4 percentage points.

 

 

http://www.thecannabist.co/2017/10/25/gallup-poll-marijuana-legalization-americans/90851/