The Relationship Between Gut Bacteria and Multiple Sclerosis

I was recently diagnosed with SIBO. What’s that, you may ask? SIBO is an acronym for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. If you have never heard of it don’t worry. Neither did several doctors I’ve seen since my diagnosis. That’s a tricky game when doctors are in the dark about a patient’s illness.

Basically, SIBO is when bacteria normally found in the large intestine proliferate and spill over into the small intestine, a place where they don’t belong. It may be caused by a dysfunction of intestinal nerves or muscles or some sort of abnormality of the intestine.

Symptoms can include abdominal bloating, diarrhea, constipation, gas, joint pain, abdominal pain, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and weight loss.


“Bacteria living in the gut may remotely influence the activity of cells in the brain involved in controlling inflammation and neurodegeneration. Using preclinical models for multiple sclerosis and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes (a star-shaped glial cell in the brain and spinal cord) in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The team’s results were published in Nature Medicine.”

Francisco Quintana

“‘For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,’” said corresponding author Francisco Quintana, HMS associate professor of neurology and the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at Brigham and Women’s.

“What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation,” he said.

Now I know I’m on the right path to use food as medicine. 


BY Cathy Chester



World’s largest Hemp extraction plant to be brought to Kentucky, producing positive and profound influence on health care industry

FRANKFORT – Senator Julian M. Carroll, D-Frankfort, pre-filed legislation earlier this month for the 2018 Regular Session that would increase the safety

Sorgente: World’s largest Hemp extraction plant to be brought to Kentucky, producing positive and profound influence on health care industry

Kentucky: Marijuana Legalization Bill to be Introduced For 2018

U.S. Marijuana Party of Kentucky


Republican state Senator Dan Seum plans on introducing legislation for the 2018 session that legalizes the adult use of and sale of cannabis.

Lawmakers in the 2018 legislative session will be primarily focused on crafting and passing a two-year state budget bill. The Senator believes that casting adult use legalization as a “jobs bill” will gain in traction.

“I’m looking at adult use, because that’s where the money is at,” Seum said.

According to the DEA, agents confiscated over 300,000 marijuana plants in Kentucky in 2016 — the third highest total of any state in the nation.

Enter your information below to send a letter to your state elected officials in support of this effort.


View original post


Last week, Mexico’s health regulator announced a plan to legalize the sale of cannabis products in 2018.

The move surprised many due to Mexico’s notoriously rocky history with drugs. Major cartel activity has plagued the country throughout the nearly fifteen-year Mexican Drug war that by certain estimates has claimed more than 150,000 lives. The illegality of cannabis and other drugs in the United States and Mexico has allowed black market dealers and cartels to thrive. The United States trend toward legalization as well as Mexico taking a huge step forward by legalizing the use of cannabis with a THC content of less than 1% for medicinal use had already begun to undercut the profits and productivity with Mexican cartels in 2017.


By legalizing cannabis with a THC content of 1% or lower in June of 2017, Mexico set into motion the process by which cannabis use eventually becomes legal nationwide. The most recent announcement by the Mexican health regulation department will piggyback on the June legislation and allow the sale of medicines, foods, drinks, and even cosmetics beginning early 2018.

Though the formal regulations are set to be released soon, it is already clear that by legalizing the production, sale, and purchase of cannabis products, the Mexican government is taking another step towards combatting deadly drug violence due in large part to drug prohibition throughout the United States and Mexico. The new regulations will permit the sale of cannabis-infused products, but the sale or possession of pure cannabis will remain outlawed in Mexico.


While advancing the legalization of cannabis in Mexico has a very positive impact for the people who need it to treat, pain, anxiety, or chronic disease, the biggest impact will be the decrease of cartel activity. More than 150,000 people have died during Mexico’s drug war and many more have been kidnapped or displaced. It is generally accepted by experts that U.S. cannabis legalization efforts have led directly to a decrease in profits for the cartel. Cartel profits will only continue to decline should Mexico continue to follow the lead of its northern neighbors when it comes to marijuana legalization.

Much like in the United States, it remains unclear how far away complete legalization is in Mexico. This most recent move to legalize the production of cannabis-infused products is a step towards the goal of complete legalization but its success will likely determine the course cannabis in Mexico takes moving forward.

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome

Seizures are difficult to control in the Dravet syndrome, a rare genetic form of epileptic encephalopathy primarily due to loss-of-function mutations in the SCN1A gene. Interest in cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy was generated by media reports of efficacy in children with the Dravet syndrome.1 Four small trials of cannabidiol had yielded mixed results.2-5 A series of in vitro and in vivo preclinical models of seizure showed that cannabidiol had activity against convulsive seizures.6 Subsequently, the safety and effectiveness of a standardized oral solution of cannabidiol was tested in an open-label trial involving 214 children and young adults with drug-resistant epilepsy.7 We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cannabidiol to treat drug-resistant epilepsy in the Dravet syndrome.


Trial Design and Oversight
This was a multinational, randomized, double-blind trial of adjunctive cannabidiol versus placebo in children and young adults 2 to 18 years of age with the Dravet syndrome whose seizures were not controlled by their current antiepileptic-drug regimen. The trial comprised a 4-week baseline period, a 14-week treatment period (2 weeks of dose escalation and 12 weeks of dose maintenance), a 10-day taper period, and a 4-week safety follow-up period. The trial was approved by the review board or ethics committee at each participating institution and was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Conference on Harmonisation Good Clinical Practice guidelines. All the patients or their parents or legal representatives provided written informed consent, and children mature enough to understand the trial provided assent. Patients could withdraw at any point without prejudice.

The funding source, GW Pharmaceuticals, was responsible for the trial design (with input from investigators and other experts), trial management, site monitoring, trial pharmacovigilance, data analysis, and statistical analysis. GW Pharmaceuticals prepared and provided the active treatment and placebo. Trial procedures were reviewed at multisite investigator meetings. Services were used for clinical laboratory testing; bioanalytical laboratory testing; design of the case-report form; data management; trial-agent distribution, returns, and destruction; the interactive voice-response system; diagnosis of the Dravet syndrome and seizure classification; and translation of documents. The authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the reported data and analyses and for the adherence of the trial to the protocol (available with the full text of this article at The authors affirm that they approved the final draft of the manuscript.
Patients were eligible if they had an established diagnosis of the Dravet syndrome, were taking one or more antiepileptic drugs, and had had four or more convulsive seizures during the 28-day baseline period. An independent review of the previously documented diagnosis of the Dravet syndrome and the classification of seizure type was conducted for each patient by an independent panel appointed by the Epilepsy Study Consortium, under a standard protocol (see the protocol). All medications or interventions for epilepsy, including a ketogenic diet and vagus-nerve stimulation, were stable for 4 weeks before screening and were to remain unchanged throughout the trial. The dose of cannabidiol used in the trial was recommended by an independent data and safety monitoring committee (see the protocol), whose members reviewed data from a dose-ranging pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation of three doses of cannabidiol (5, 10, and 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) and identified the maximum dose that was safe and was not associated with unacceptable side effects.


After informed consent was obtained, patients entered a 4-week baseline period. The investigator trained the caregiver to record daily seizure information. Patients who satisfied all eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive cannabidiol or matching placebo, in addition to their stable antiepileptic-drug regimens. Cannabidiol oral solution contained 100 mg of cannabidiol per milliliter. The placebo solution was identical to the cannabidiol solution except for the absence of cannabidiol. The dose was escalated up to 20 mg per kilogram per day (or the equivalent volume of placebo) with the use of a 14-day dosing regimen that was approved by the data and safety monitoring committee. All doses were administered twice daily. At the end of the treatment period, the cannabidiol and placebo solutions were tapered (10% each day) over a period of 10 days. After trial completion, all patients could enter a long-term open-label study.

Each day, patients or their caregivers recorded the number and type of convulsive seizures (tonic, clonic, tonic–clonic, or atonic) for the primary end-point measure of convulsive-seizure frequency, using an interactive voice-response system. Clinical laboratory assessments were performed at baseline and after 2, 4, 8, and 14 weeks of the trial regimen, as well as at the end of the taper period for those patients who did not enter the open-label extension study or who withdrew early and tapered the trial agent.

End Points

The primary end point was the percentage change per 28 days from the 4-week baseline period in convulsive-seizure frequency during the 14-week treatment period among patients who received cannabidiol as compared with placebo. The treatment period extended from randomization to the end of the 14-week trial or the date of the last dose. The maintenance period extended from the end of the 2-week dose-escalation period to the end of the 14-week trial or the date of the last dose. The intention-to-treat analysis set included all patients in the safety analysis set who had postbaseline efficacy data.


Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Research in both animals and humans indicates that cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic properties. The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of CBD in patients with schizophrenia.

In an exploratory double-blind parallel-group trial, patients with schizophrenia were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive CBD (1000 mg/day; N=43) or placebo (N=45) alongside their existing antipsychotic medication. Participants were assessed before and after treatment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), and the improvement and severity scales of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-I and CGI-S).

After 6 weeks of treatment, compared with the placebo group, the CBD group had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms (PANSS: treatment difference=-1.4, 95% CI=-2.5, -0.2) and were more likely to have been rated as improved (CGI-I: treatment difference=-0.5, 95% CI=-0.8, -0.1) and as not severely unwell (CGI-S: treatment difference=-0.3, 95% CI=-0.5, 0.0) by the treating clinician. Patients who received CBD also showed greater improvements that fell short of statistical significance in cognitive performance (BACS: treatment difference=1.31, 95% CI=-0.10, 2.72) and in overall functioning (GAF: treatment difference=3.0, 95% CI=-0.4, 6.4). CBD was well tolerated, and rates of adverse events were similar between the CBD and placebo groups.

These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia. As CBD’s effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.

## Neurodisorders Congress 2018


Neuro disorders Congress 2018 aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers, and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects such as; Advances in Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery in Neurological Disorders. It also provides the premier interdisciplinary forum for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted in the field of Neuro disorders Congress 2018.

Neuro disorders are the disorders of brain, spine and nerve cells. It occurs due to the faulty genes and by muscular dystrophy.  Damage to the nerve cell or death of the nerve cell causes degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Diseases of the blood vessels that supply the brain, include stroke, Injuries to the spinal cord and brain Seizure disorders, such as epilepsy Cancer etc.  The persons suffering from Neuro disorders have poor judgment, relapsing of memory, Tremor, Loss of…

View original post 22 altre parole

Accesso e continuità della terapia: i problemi raccontati dai pazienti

Ecco un estratto del testo elaborato ed esposto durante l’audizione in III Commissione lo scorso 21 settembre a Bari alla presenza di numerosi tecnici regionali ed esponenti di diverse associazioni e gruppi invitati. Volendo dare il proprio contributo, nella sede di LapianTiamo a Racale, sono state raccolte numerose segnalazioni che hanno reso il quadro chiaro ai tecnici dell’Associazione che hanno poi suddiviso in punti tutte le criticità che ogni paziente in cura con la Cannabis è costretto a vivere per accedere o per aver garantita la continuità terapeutica.

Si sente sempre più spesso un’aria di cambiamento e come disse un folle: «chi dice che è impossibile, non dovrebbe disturbare chi ce la sta facendo». (A.Einstein)

Oggetto: situazione attuale sul territorio in merito al tema Cannabis terapeutica
. Alle aperture dell’Amministrazione regionale non sono coincisi i miglioramenti sperati dal punto di vista procedurale. Segue una sintesi per punti delle criticità attuali relative.

– Sono stati nominati in molti casi medici già noti per la loro contrarietà al tema e che non hanno cambiato condotta in conseguenza dell’incarico, rifiutando la prescrizione anche a persone con evidente indicazione secondo decreto ministeriale e disposizioni regionali.

– Pazienti con prescrizione anche di durata pluriennale dirottati dal centro di Gallipoli presso le proprie ASL di appartenenza hanno visto negata la conferma di prescrizione e sono costrette attualmente ad acquistare con onere a proprio carico (chi può permetterselo).

– Le scuse con le quali la prescrizione viene negata sono le più disparate adducendo come ragione del diniego la necessità di figure più specializzate nella particolare patologia (esempio: per l’epilessia viene richiesto un epilettologo!) a dispetto della libertà di prescrizione garantita ai medici dalla legislazione presente.

– I prescrittori dimostrano dal loro agire una non conoscenza della materia arrivando a scambiare tra loro tipologie di Cannabis non sovrapponibili per proprietà farmacologiche, considerando la pianta come un unico farmaco piuttosto che come un fitocomplesso.

– Alcuni prescrittori più onesti intellettualmente ammettono la loro non competenza sulla materia agli stessi pazienti consegnando loro i moduli di prescrizione e chiedendo la compilazione dei medesimi da parte di medici privati;

– Nonostante l’incarico affidato ai medici di medicina generale di ripetizione della prescrizione mensile sulla base del piano terapeutico, continua la richiesta da parte delle farmacie ospedaliere di ricette redatte esclusivamente da medici specialisti ASL costringendo così le persone ad una via crucis di attese interminabili a cadenza mensile.
Sottolineiamo il fatto che la Cannabis rappresenta una terapia farmacologica come tutte le altre. È inutile ricordare come farmaci ben più tossici e inclini a dare dipendenza siano normalmente prescritti e dispensati dagli ambienti ospedalieri e ASL (oppiacei, antidepressivi, benzodiazepine, etc.) senza alcuna remora o resistenza.

Difficoltà di reperimento dei preparati olandesi sul mercato.
 In ultimo segnaliamo la criticità rappresentata dalla scomparsa in commercio dei preparati di origine olandese (in particolare Bedrocan, Bediol) a partire dall’immissione sul mercato di quelli italiani comunque non sovrapponibili ai suddetti: avere dosaggi simili di THC e CBD non significa avere lo stesso effetto.

In merito alla varietà olandese Bedrolite, priva di THC e contenente elevato titolo di CBD, anch’essa carente sul mercato sottolineiamo il fatto che viene assunta da bambini con epilessie fortemente refrattarie ai comuni trattamenti, con benefici altrimenti impossibili da raggiungere. Tale situazione è presente sia in regime ospedaliero che nelle farmacie private rendendo impossibile la continuità terapeutica anche a proprio carico.

Queste difficoltà sono probabilmente ricollegabili alle recenti disposizioni ministeriali che di fatto hanno meritoriamente posto un limite ai prezzi di vendita in farmacia non preoccupandosi tuttavia di adeguare i prezzi di distribuzione. La reazione dei farmacisti privati è stata la disdetta degli ordini causa mancato guadagno e di conseguenza anche i distributori nazionali attualmente risultano sprovvisti… e a pagare sono sempre i pazienti.

Documentazione Ufficiale redatta e lasciata da Lucia Spiri, Presidente LapianTiamo, agli Atti della III Commissione del Consiglio Regionale Puglia

Paraguay Congress legalizes planting of medical marijuana

On December 5th, Paraguay passed a bill to create a state-sponsored system for marijuana. The bill, passed by Congress, authorizes the importation of marijuana seeds to grow cannabis for medical use. This decision comes just a few months after Paraguay authorized the importation of cannabis oil back in May 2017.

Currently, Paraguay is one of the largest producers and sources of illegal marijuana in the region, with most of its product being trafficked into Brazil and Argentina. Now, Paraguay joins Peru, Chile, Argentina, Columbia and Uruguay as the sixth country in South America to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes.

For Roberto Cabanas, the Vice President or Paraguay’s medicinal cannabis organization and father of a little girl with Dravet Syndrome, the bill is life changing. As of right now, his family pays more than $300 a month to import cannabis oil for treatment. Once he’s able to grow his own marijuana, not only will he be able to drastically cut back on his costs, but he’ll have better access to the medication his daughter needs “We are very happy because this will also allow for the import of seeds for oil production,” Cabanas told Reuters.

The new bill is expected to be signed into law by President Horatio Cartes shortly, thanks to support from the Health Ministry.  And once it’s signed into law, it will open up new opportunities for cannabis in the country, including the creation of a national research program, which will study current and future applications of medical cannabis.

However, there are still a few logistical requirements that need to take place to turn the bill into law. Cannabis will need to be removed from Paraguay’s list of dangerous drugs, and medical marijuana patients will need to register with the Ministry of Public Health in order to gain a prescription.

Once enacted, medical marijuana in Paraguay will fall under the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare as well as the National Anti-Drug Secretariat.



%d blogger hanno fatto clic su Mi Piace per questo: