Inside Germany’s New Medical Marijuana Law

On January 19, the German Parliament unanimously voted to legalize medical cannabis. “Critically ill people must be cared for in the best possible way,” federal health minister Hermann Gröhe said at the time. “The costs of using cannabis for medicinal purposes will be met by the health insurance companies if the critically ill, if no other form of treatment is effective.”

germany mmj medical marijuana

The law went into effect in March. Patients are now able to receive up to five ounces per month at a cost of $12 per ounce under public health insurance (which covers 90% of Germans). They can take their doctor’s prescription to any licensed apotheke, or pharmacy, to get it filled. Reimbursement will happen via a special fund set up by the government, with an eye to public health insurers then picking up the slack (probably after the five-year trial also mandated by the new law).

More than 1,000 patients have registered with the program. That number is expected to grow to between 5,000 and 10,000 per year for the next several years, depending on how doctors respond to government education efforts and patient demand.


Sorgente: Inside Germany’s New Medical Marijuana Law

“People are desperate”: Parents, doctors place epileptic children in trials to get FDA approval of CBD oil

By Vinny Vella, The Hartford Courant

HARTFORD, Conn. — There are good days for West Tarricone. Days when she can laugh and live like any other 9-year-old. Days when she can play with her brother, Blake, and watch “The Ellen DeGeneres Show” on her iPad.

But there are also bad days. Days when her body weathers 100 seizures. Days when it has closer to 1,000 — some lasting more than 90 minutes.

Lately, she’s been having more good days thanks to Connecticut’s new experiment with medical marijuana.

Doctors diagnosed West just after her first birthday, not long after her mother Cara Tarricone noticed she had been jerking oddly. Two weeks before they learned West had intractable epilepsy, she had a grand mal seizure.

In the years since, West has tried a battery of nearly two dozen medicines, but just one has brought her some comfort — cannabis oil, which is derived from the marijuana plant.


Medical marijuana

“Without it, we’d be in the hospital, we’d just live there because we’d have to be controlling bigger seizures all the time,” Tarricone said.

West takes the cannabis oil daily, in addition to four pharmaceutical medications. Tarricone says she’s “pleased” with the daily medication, and has seen a decrease in some seizure activity.

But the medicine’s most profound effect comes when West’s seizures flare beyond control. When that occurs, Tarricone rubs a different concentration of the oil into her daughter’s gums as a “rescue medicine.” Within a minute, the more intense symptoms subside. Her tightened muscles slacken. Her breathing regulates.

Before the oil, the family had to rely on pharmaceutical rescue medicines. When they didn’t show signs of working right away, Tarricone would have to call for an ambulance.

During intense seizures, they usually didn’t work.

“I said immediately, this is a natural option, and I want this for my child,” Tarricone said. “Something that could eliminate a lot of extra pharmaceutical medication in her system and be so simple and straightforward? This is something we needed for our daughter.”

The state legislature passed a bill approving cannabis as a palliative treatment for childhood seizure patients in May 2016, but the medicine didn’t become available until October, when the law went into effect.

The Tarricones received their first batch for West in March. She is currently one of less than 50 children in Connecticut utilizing the medicine, according to the state Department of Consumer Protection.

Getting the medicine was a victory for the family, one of the more vocal advocates for legalizing cannabis oil.

And as they begin using it, they hope their story inspires a greater understanding and wider acceptance of a substance that could improve the lives of other children.

Story continues below photo gallery

In this Aug. 26, 2016 photo, West Tarricone sits with her mother Diane, after Diane came home from work in North Windham, Conn. West was diagnosed with a severe epileptic disorder before her first birthday. After trying nearly two dozen medications, her family sought out medical marijuana to better control her seizures. (Lauren Schneiderman, Hartford Courant via AP)

Fighting for medicine

West’s condition is so unstable that Tarricone had to give up her job to care for the girl. Her wife, Diane, works three jobs to support the family.

Moving to another state, like California, where medical marijuana is more readily available, was not an option. Their son, for one, couldn’t bear the thought of leaving his friends and school, she said.

Besides, the Tarricones are attached to their neurologist at Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Dr. Jennifer Madan Cohen.

Attached to the point where leaving her care was a risk they wouldn’t take. So if they couldn’t go to the drug, they’d find a way to bring it to them.

Tarricone lent her voice to the movement of parents seeking medical marijuana for their children. It was a fledgling group in 2015, when the first bill failed in the state legislature.

But a year later, they were ready, Tarricone said, adding their testimony to a groundswell of support for the legislation.

“We shared stories and made it personal, how it would affect us, how it would affect our children,” she said. “I truly think that gave us the momentum. In that year, we had enough opportunity to educate legislators personally as to what the medication is, how it worked, how effective it could be, and that parents should really be the ones making that decision with their medical care providers.”

But when they initially broached the subject with Madan Cohen and the other members of West’s medical team, they were somewhat skeptical, Tarricone said.

“They just didn’t know that this was something parents were pursuing, and moving to other states to pursue,” she said. “But I kept saying, ‘This is what’s happening, let’s talk about this more, I want to continue this conversation.’”

“And I didn’t let it go,” she added.

Madan Cohen has treated West since her diagnosis. In that time, she’s seen her try a bevy of medicines for the seizures that plague her.

“You name it, she’s been on it,” Madan Cohen, the medical director of the hospital’s epilepsy center and clinical neurophysiology lab, said in her office recently. “If there’s a medicine I’ve had, she’s tried it.”

Because of that, she doesn’t see the Tarricones’ interest in medical marijuana as “irrational.”

“They’ve seen their child have pretty severe seizures and not have control with the various treatments they have,” she said. “So I’ve never discouraged a family’s want to try this treatment, but we have to decide when it’s the right time to try something.”

She acknowledged that West was at a point in her life where trying medical marijuana was an attractive option.

But when it comes to the treatment’s effectiveness, Madan Cohen is unable to give a definite answer. And it’s not just because the utilization of the oil is still relatively new for the adolescent.

Trials and error

Medical marijuana is unique in the way it’s dispensed. Normally, medication requires FDA approval before it can be prescribed to patients. However, because individual states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal purposes, patients seeking the drug are circumventing that approval process, receiving a substance that the federal government considers illegal — and largely untested as a drug.

Still, within the medical community, there’s a body of evidence supporting the benefits of using cannabidiol, a chemical compound found in marijuana, in treating seizures. Evidence like clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies with deep pockets. Madan Cohen herself is involved in one such trial, the goal of which is to accumulate enough evidence to one day seek FDA approval.

But the products available in Connecticut are not purely cannabidiol. They also contain tetrahydrocannabinol, another chemical component found in marijuana known to be psychoactive, in various concentrations.

Trials studying the effectiveness of THC, or any other component of marijuana, can be difficult to get clearance for, according to Dr. William Zempsky, a pediatrician with Connecticut Children’s Medical Center who sits on the board of physicians for the state’s medical marijuana program.

For one, limited availability means that different physicians work with different strains of the plant. And there seem to be multiple variants for every study: how the marijuana is consumed and the conditions it’s used to treat, for example.

“We’re dealing with a different combination of drugs that people study,” Zempsky said. “It’s really hard to take all that information and go forth and say ‘Medical marijuana works for x condition,’ because we’re not talking about the same thing, and to drill it down to an individual patient is more complex.”

Connecticut has a history of such studies. St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center sought to study marijuana as an alternative to opioid painkillers. Yale University has sponsored similar trials in the past, according to Zempsky.

And Connecticut Children’s is laying the groundwork for a study of its own, using data from its patients to see the long-term effects of medical marijuana.

The medications that West uses, for example, are low doses of THC. Just enough to treat her seizures and keep her comfortable.

The family initially tried cannabidiol medication, Tarricone said. It made West’s seizures even worse.

Still, THC’s effectiveness hasn’t been proven clinically, Madan Cohen said. Instead, physicians rely on anecdotal evidence, like the Tarricones’ positive experience, when informing prospective patients.

“I think there’s enough people who reported it that that’s some level of data,” Madan Cohen said. “But it’s just not the same level of data as a randomized, controlled trial and the things the FDA requires to get a medicine approved as a treatment.”

Trials help determine crucial medical information, like the drug’s side effects, dosing recommendations and interactions with other medicines.

Without them, physicians treating patients with medical marijuana have to undergo some trial and error, seeing what works best in their individual case.

“My advice to parents — and this is what I told West’s parents as well — is that you have to think of it as you’re doing your own clinical trial on your child,” she said. “We don’t know what the outcome is going to be, we don’t know if they’re going to respond, we don’t know what the side effects are.

“But there are some families who feel that risk is acceptable compared to what is going on in the child’s life medically at the current time,” she added.

A family’s choice

FDA approval would have the additional benefit of making the medicine more affordable: All approved drugs have to be covered at least partially by medical insurance.

If for no other reason than that, Madan Cohen is encouraging more trials, more testing from policymakers both here and in Washington.

“Now, people are desperate, and they feel like the government is just getting in their way, as opposed to the idea that the government is protecting them from potential harm,” she said. “And I think the intentions are good to make sure that something doesn’t have a lot of side effects.”

Zempsky said he understands the frustrations that some parents may feel, especially if they see medical marijuana as an effective alternate remedy. But, still, he cautioned against universal adoption of the drug too early.

“While I’ve seen a lot of impressive outcomes with medical marijuana, it’s not as good as everyone says it is,” Zempsky said. “We have to be careful of letting things get out too far ahead of us, because we don’t know long-term risks, especially for child patients.”

He’s not outright opposed to prescribing the drug for children suffering from certain conditions, like epilepsy. He simply argues that there isn’t enough data out there to know how adolescent use of medical marijuana affects patients later in life.

“If you give medical marijuana to someone who’s 13, you need to know what they’re like when (they’re) 40,” he said. “That takes time, and there’s no way to expedite that. So we won’t be comfortable for years in the pediatric world to open the floodgates, even if we’re comfortable in the adult world.”

But research is needed. And Rep. Gail Lavielle understands that.

The Republican from Wilton became a vocal supporter last spring for medical marijuana in the state — both as an elected official and a mother.

“When you’re a parent, you want to do everything you can to help your child. You’re not going to put your child in danger voluntarily,” she said. “So you must be pretty desperate to try and find something to help them if you’re willing to consider something that you’re not totally sure of the risks of.

“So I listened to this, and I decided it wasn’t up to me to decide, that it would be supreme and egregious arrogance to think otherwise,” she added.

Lavielle stresses that she’s not “pro marijuana,” especially when it comes to recreational use. But in conversations with her constituents who have epileptic children, she realized the government shouldn’t create unneeded roadblocks.

“My stance is that it’s not up to me as a legislator, as a member of the government, or to the legislature itself to tell people whether they can try something that they think might work when their child has a very grave disease,” she said.

Her colleagues agreed: The bill passed 129-13 in the House and 23-11 in the Senate in May 2016.

Doing everything possible

Meanwhile, away from the Capitol and long-winded debates over policy, children like West Tarricone live the reality of that decision, their families hoping for continued success with treatment.

The 9-year-old from Windham doesn’t let anything slow her down. Her personality is bright and bubbly. She’s affectionate, grabbing the hands of new acquaintances as she leads them around her living room.

Tarricone says her daughter loves to laugh, especially at the pratfalls and tumbles her twin brother makes while they play.

The levity helps, Tarricone said. It takes the family’s collective attention away from the epilepsy. So does the cannabis oil.

What started as a seeming long shot, an idea that Tarricone first had three years ago, now sits in the family’s medicine cabinet, ready to soothe the seizures when they overtake her daughter.

“If you were in our position and you were running out of all pharmaceutical options, and here’s this hope at the end of a really bad tunnel for a child who’s going to prematurely die, you’re going to know,” Cara Tarricone said.

“Because when you look in your child’s eyes, you know you have to do everything possible to help them.


Marijuana has been considered as a medical aide to cancer patients for a very long time. It is proven to help people fight through the terrible side effects of chemotherapy and there have even been conflicting reports on whether or not marijuana can actually kill cancer cells. In a study recently published in the International Journal of Oncology, it was found that the combination of certain cannabinoids and chemotherapy drugs increases the success of the chemotherapy drugs on leukemia cells.

Researchers from St. George’s University in London, England, tested multiple different pairings of cannabinoids and chemotherapy drugs on leukemia cells in a laboratory. They tested different timeframes of administration, amounts of medicine given, and mixes of cannabinoids and chemotherapy drugs to see exactly what was most effective.

The study determined many groundbreaking pieces of information. It determined that the potency of the anti-leukemia chemotherapy drugs was increased when cannabinoids were given after the chemotherapy drugs. The distinction was made by the researchers that the cannabinoids were to be administered only after the chemotherapy drugs had been, and not before. The study states: “the sequence of drug administration is crucial to the success of these triple combinations and should be considered when planning such treatments.”

Chemotherapy is known for its debilitating side effects, such as: fatigue, hair loss, infection, appetite loss and weight change. These side effects are due to the toxic nature of the drugs. The drugs are used to kill cancer cells, yet they tend to affect healthy cells as well. The most important find from this study, is the fact that by treating cancer with both chemotherapy drugs and cannabinoids, the amount of chemotherapy drugs needed to produce the same effect is significantly lower. This is important because the smaller amount of toxic chemicals entering the body of an already weekend patient the better.

The medical uses of marijuana are many in number, and varying in degree of success. While we are still at the early stages of proving marijuana’s efficacy into treating cancer, this new study does prove that marijuana can kill leukemia cells while also lessening the negative effects of chemotherapy drugs.

Marijuana cured 12-year-old girl of rare epilepsy syndrome

Annalise Lujan was in the middle of a gymnastics meet in April when she started vomiting and lost all feeling in her legs.

As the 12-year-old fell into a crippling seizure, her parents rushed her to the hospital, and she was put into a medically induced coma to save her brain from damage.

Annalise was then flown to a specialist unit at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, where she was diagnosed with a rare epilepsy syndrome, known as febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES).

The condition causes Annalise to have seizures continuously, which can lead to brain injury and even death. It meant doctors couldn’t bring her out of the coma until they had an effective method to prevent her seizures.

Because regular anti-epilepsy medication doesn’t work on this condition, her mother Maryann Estrada-Lujan researched other options.

She found a cannabis-derived drug, called cannabidiol, and Annalise was able to be brought out of the coma after three treatments on May 8.

Now Annalise is no longer plagued by constant seizures and is in therapy to regain her cognitive abilities.

 Annalise Lujan, 12, was diagnosed with a rare epilepsy syndrome, known as febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome, in April     The condition causes her to have seizures continuously. She was put in a medically induced coma to save her from brain trauma (pictured in April)

Annalise Lujan, 12, (left, before she was sick) was diagnosed febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in April. The condition causes her to have seizures continuously. She was put in a medically induced coma to save her from brain trauma (right in April)

While the cannabis derived drug was useful in Annalise’s case, medical experts are still divided on its overall effectiveness.

Former Surgeon General Vivek Murthy admitted marijuana could be helpful in treating certain conditions but cautioned that there needs to be more research.

In a groundbreaking study, scientists at New York University and Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital found cannabidiol halved a rare epileptic seizure.

This marked a major milestone in efforts to introduce the drug as an effective treatment plan.

However, other experts claimed the study wasn’t as promising because the patients were also taking other drugs.

Scientists are expressing the need to further examine the medical benefits of cannabis before it is made readily available to patients.

When Annalise’s parents first brought her to the hospital, the medical experts thought she had a stomach virus.

Estrada-Lujan said to KVOA: ‘One day, she was just a healthy young lady, going to school, participating in her community and her gymnastics, and the next day – fighting for her life.

‘She was put on a ventilator, and put into a medical coma, and, we haven’t talked to her since.’

Symptoms of FIRES normally appears one day to 14 days after a child has a mild fever.

Seizures start slowly before getting worse, with some children having 100 seizures a day. FIRES is extremely rare, with one in a million children contracting it.

It happens when a virus spreads to the brain or autoimmune system after an ordinary cold or stomach flu.

Now Annalise is no longer plagued by constant seizures and is in therapy (pictured in May) to regain her cognitive abilities

Now Annalise is no longer plagued by constant seizures and is in therapy (pictured in May) to regain her cognitive abilities.

Regular epilepsy medications aren’t successful in treating FIRES, so Estrada-Lujan began looking for a solution elsewhere.

She learned that cannabidiol has been studied to treat epilepsy conditions and pushed for its use in her daughter’s treatment.

The oil has very low levels of THC, which is the substance responsible producing the ‘high’ in marijuana.

Since the substance wasn’t approved at the time, Annalise’s doctors had to rush for its approval with the FDA and DEA.

Less than two days after Annalise’s first treatment, she was cured of the constant seizures on May 8.

Estrada-Lujan added to KVOA: ‘She opened her eyes, and she was scared. She was afraid. She cried. And, I whispered to her that she was very strong, she’s beautiful, and she’s strong, and she needed to keep breathing, and she did.’

Now Annalise is in recovery and will need therapy to regain the same cognitive functions that she had before.

Cannabidiol oil was found to be successful in treating other forms of epilepsy.

A recent study by New York University and Great Ormond Street found the syrup, taken once a day, reduced the convulsive seizures by 48 percent in under-18s with Dravet syndrome, a rare and severe form of epilepsy.

Experts don’t considered it as a ‘cure’ – because patients have to keep taking it every day for the benefits to last.

They also still do not understand precisely how the cannabis compound controls epilepsy symptoms.

It is thought to act on the endocannabinoid system, a network of molecular receptors in the brain and nervous system that not only generates the cannabis ‘high’ but is linked to a wide range of physiological processes.

Around three million Americans and more than 600,000 people in the UK suffer with epilepsy and for a third of them drugs do not work to control their symptoms.

Sorgente: Marijuana cured 12-year-old girl of rare epilepsy syndrome

New Study Finds Cannabis May Help Preserve Brain Function As We Age

As we get older, the brain ages. As the brain ages, cognitive ability decreases. Short-term memory, learning new things, or devoting attention to several things at the same time becomes more difficult. Researchers have long been looking for ways to slow down or even reverse this process. Scientists at the University of Bonn and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel) have now achieved this in mice.

A new study published in Nature Medicine reports that low-doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an active ingredient of cannabis, given to mice helped to restore and even reverse some effects of age-related decline in cognitive performance, as well as enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins, and increased hippocampal spine density. These results are very promising for treatment and prevention of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases.
The Endocannabinoid System and Aging
There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of a system that modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the tissues of the aging brain.

CB1 receptors are proteins to which substances dock and thus trigger a signal chain. Because THC accumulates at the receptor, CB1 is also the reason for the euphoric and “”high” effects of THC found in cannabis and high-THC cannabis products. As we age, the quantity of the cannabinoids naturally formed in the brain reduces, leading to rapid aging in the brain.
The Zimmer, et al., Study
To test the effects of cannabis on the brain, Andreas Zimmer, director of the Institute of Molecular Psychiatry at the University of Bonn, worked with a team of researchers to study the effects of THC on mice.
mouseResearchers chose mice because there are some really important similarities between humans and mice. Because they are both mammals, the hippocampus and other brain parts involved with learning and memory function the same. Humans and mice also have the same proteins and biological systems, and a similar endocannabinoid system. However, mice have a relatively short life expectancy and display pronounced cognitive deficiencies even at 12-mos. old.
Mice were grouped by age (2 months, 12 months, and 18 months), along with a control group that was left untreated. Each group was tested for cognitive capacities before and after the treatment cycle. The team put the mice through several behavioral and ability tests, like the Morris water maze, to test their capacity to learn and adapt to changes in their environment, as well as their ability to remember and recognize other mice.
All of the mice, except the control group, were administered low doses of THC over a period of four weeks, via an implant.
“The treatment completely reversed the loss of performance in the old animals. It looked as though the THC treatment turned back the molecular clock.” – Prof. Andreas Zimmer, Institute of Molecular Psychiatry
To discover precisely what effect the THC treatment had on the mice, the researchers examined the brain tissue and gene activity of the treated mice. In the older mice, they found that the molecular signature no longer corresponded to that of an old animal, but was instead very similar to that of its younger counterpart.
The research team found that THC reversed the age-related cognitive decline in the 12-mo. and 18-mo. old mice. This behavioral effect was accompanied by increased synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density. The number of links between the nerve cells in the brain also increased again, which is an important prerequisite for learning ability. In fact, the THC treatment worked so well that the performance of the 12-mo. old THC-treated mice closely resembled that of the untreated 2 mo. old mice in the control group.
These findings suggest that restoration of CB1 signaling in older people could be an effective strategy to treat ailments of the aging, such as dementia.
THC Affects the Brain Differently Depending on Maturity Level
The Zimmer et al. study made an interestingly discovery, however. The younger mice that were treated with THC performed on par with the older untreated mice. Deficiencies or an overabundance of cannabinoids can cause cognitive processing difficulties. Therefore, the THC consumed by the younger mice made it harder for them to learn and remember, but that same amount of THC consumed by the older mice helped them restore a declining internal balance of brain chemicals.
Researcher Onder Albayram was interviewed by Inverse Science, and asked what accounts for these behavioral changes. Albayram replied, “The young brain has lots of endocannabinoids, and an old brain has significantly less. That’s why when you give THC to a young brain, which can access lots of endocannabinoids, this confuses the brain. But when you give THC to old brains, they have less endocannabinoid binding affinity, so the brain experiences a plasticity change to adapt to high THC.”
The control group of mice who were only given a placebo displayed natural age-dependent learning and memory losses.



The Mexican Chamber of Deputies passed some amendments to the General Health Law and the Federal Penal Code to permit the medical, therapeutic and research of marijuana, effectively legalizing medical marijuana in Mexico.

This is a major milestone in marijuana legalization, as not only is cannabis approved for patient use, but for research. For Mexico to open up the possibility of additional research is a huge win for both the patient and scientific community.

The Chamber of Deputies (Lower House of Congress) was 371 in favor and seven against with 11 abstentions. The bill now will be signed by President Enrique Pena Nieto.

With Friday’s vote, Mexico will join other nations in Latin America and 28 states in the US that allow cannabis for a variety of medical ailments.

Proponents argued in favor of legalization as a means to help the country reduce drug-related violence and misuse, President Enrique Pena Nieto agreed.

The newly approved bill allows the Health Ministry to develop the regulations for the medical use and production of products made from marijuana. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant’s main psychoactive ingredient is also approved in the bill but products with only one percent concentration of THC will be allowed.

Under the newly approved guidelines, growing marijuana for medical and scientific purposes will not be punishable.


Last year a family in northern Mexico became the voice of the country to legalize medical marijuana when the parents of a young epileptic girl, Grace Elizalde, won a court battle to import a cannabis oil for her treatment. Anecdotal evidence from other patients who suffer from seizure disorders helped to persuade the health ministry to allow Grace to try CBD oil as a treatment after exhausting all other treatment options, including surgery to sever her corpus callosum, the nerve fibers dividing two halves of her brain, the procedure only worsened her condition.

Suffering from 400 epileptic seizures every day, eight-year-old Grace Elizalde would become Mexico’s first authorized purchaser of medical marijuana.
Grace’s father, Raul Elizalde, said that the legislation represented “great progress.”

#medicalmarijuana #medicalmarijuana411 #cannabis #seizures #mexico #cannabiscommunity #cbd #cbdoil

A post shared by Medical Marijuana 411 (@medicalmarijuana411) on


I ricercatori hanno pensato che la colpa è del sistema immunitario, ma nessuno è stato stato in grado di spiegare ciò che innesca l’insorgenza della malattia. l’hanno legato ai geni, la dieta, gli agenti patogeni, e carenza di vitamina D, ma l’evidenza di questi fattori di rischio sono stranamente incoerenti e spesso contraddittori. Questo vanifica i ricercatori nella loro ricerca di un trattamento efficace.

Nell’ultimo numero della Quarterly Review of Biology (Vol 86 Numero 4, dicembre 2011), in un articolo intitolato “La sclerosi multipla non è una malattia del sistema immunitario,” Dott Angelique Corthals sostiene che la sclerosi multipla (SM) non è una malattia del sistema immunitario: è causato dal metabolismo lipidico difettoso.
Il compendio molto di base della carta: guardando MS come un disordine metabolico aiuta a spiega molti aspetti sconcertanti della malattia. casi MS sono in aumento come conseguenza diretta di una dieta ad alto tenore di zucchero, high-grassi animali. MS è simile in molti modi per l’aterosclerosi.
Questo non è un miglioramento incrementale di ciò che è noto circa SM, è un cambiamento di paradigma. Alla fine cambierà il modo di MS è capito, ricercato, e trattata.
Full disclosure: Angelique è un mio buon amico. Ho visto ogni bozza di questo documento. Non è ricerca originale. Si tratta di una panoramica di ciò che è noto per essere conosciuto. Ci vuole ciò che è stato studiato, esaminato e replicato e ricompone in qualcosa di nuovo: un puzzle in cui, per la prima volta, tutti i pezzi si incastrano. Non ci sono pezzi lasciati fuori, nessuno martellato con la forza bruta. È elegante, pulito, e ha un senso completo e totale.
A un certo punto presto scriverò su come questo mi fa sentire. Ma oggi voglio darvi l’essenza della carta senza editorialising. (Tutti gli errori sono miei; illustrazione elegante e citazioni dirette sono da Angelique.)



La professione medica ha creduto per lungo tempo che MS è una malattia in cui le difese immunitarie del corpo attaccano tessuti nervosi nel sistema nervoso centrale. [Per una panoramica di cambiare saggezza medica, vedi The Incredible Journey , la cortesia Rocky Mountain MS Center.] Caratteristica principale della malattia è l’infiammazione, quindi cicatrici, di tessuto chiamato mielina, che isola il cervello e il midollo spinale. Nel corso del tempo questo può portare a cicatrici profonde danni neurone.
I ricercatori hanno pensato che la colpa è con un sistema immunitario in fuga, ma nessuno è stato stato in grado di spiegare ciò che innesca l’insorgenza della malattia.Hanno legati geni, la dieta, gli agenti patogeni, e carenza di vitamina D a MS, ma evidenza di questi fattori di rischio è stranamente incoerente e spesso contraddittorie.Questo vanifica i ricercatori nella loro ricerca di un trattamento efficace.
“Ogni volta che un fattore di rischio genetico mostra un significativo aumento della SM in una popolazione, è stato trovato per essere irrilevante in un altro. Gli agenti patogeni come il virus di Epstein-Barr sono stati implicati, ma questo non spiega il motivo per cui popolazioni geneticamente simili con carichi di agenti patogeni simili hanno drasticamente diversi tassi di malattia. La ricerca per MS attiva nel contesto dell’autoimmunità semplicemente non ha portato ad alcuna conclusione unificanti circa l’eziologia della malattia. “
Capire come MS metabolica di origine piuttosto che autoimmune inizia a portare la malattia e le sue cause a fuoco. “Il nuovo approccio spiega sia il recente aumento dell’incidenza e tutti gli aspetti patologici, genetici e ambientali della malattia.”
In altre parole, questa nuova comprensione della SM potrà finalmente permettere di trovare un trattamento efficace, compreso il trattamento preventivo.


 L’eziologia della sclerosi multipla:
Corthals ritiene che la causa principale della sclerosi multipla possono essere ricondotti a fattori di trascrizione nei nuclei delle cellule che controllano l’assorbimento, la ripartizione, e il rilascio di lipidi (grassi e composti simili) in tutto il corpo. Quando viene interrotta la funzione di lipidi metabolizzazione di questi recettori, conosciuto come proliferator-activated receptors perossisomi (PPARs),, può causare l’accumulo di lipidi tossici noti come LDL ossidate, che si formano placche sulle tessuti colpiti. L’accumulo di placca innesca una reazione immunitaria, in parte regolata anche dai PPARs. Con un controllo dell’infiammazione fallito e l’accumulo di oxLDL, la risposta immunitaria impazzisce e le placche tossiche porta alla cicatrizzazione del tessuto. Il meccanismo è essenzialmente lo stesso come l’aterosclerosi, il cui non PPARs ‘in cellule cardiache porta ad infiammazione e una risposta immunitaria in arterie coronarie. “Quando il metabolismo dei lipidi nelle arterie non riesce, si ottiene l’aterosclerosi. Quando succede nel sistema nervoso centrale, si ottiene MS. “
Ci sono diversi fattori di rischio per la ridotta funzione PPAR, tra cui:
  • una dieta ad alto contenuto di grassi saturi e carboidrati
  • predisposizione genetica
  • fattori ambientali (come la scarsa esposizione alla luce solare o fonti di vitamina D)
Se i PPARs e l’interruzione dei lipidi omeostasi sono il colpevole nella SM, che spiegherebbe perché le statine, che sono usati per trattare il colesterolo alto, hanno mostrato risultati promettenti come trattamento di MS. Sarebbe anche spiegare perché i casi della malattia sono stati in aumento negli ultimi decenni. “In generale le persone stanno aumentando la loro assunzione di zuccheri e grassi animali, che spesso porta a colesterolo alto LDL. Così ci si aspetterebbe di vedere più alti tassi di malattie legate a malattie cardiache metabolismo lipidico, come e, in questo caso, MS. “
Essa getta luce anche sul link di vitamina D. La vitamina D aiuta ad abbassare il colesterolo LDL, quindi ha senso che la carenza di vitamina D aumenta la probabilità della malattia, specialmente nel contesto di un /-carboidrati ad alto dieta ricca di grassi.
L’ipotesi lipidica spiega anche le prove inconsistenti per i trigger MS. In molti casi, Corthals dice, avente solo uno dei fattori di rischio per ridotta funzione PPAR non è sufficiente per innescare un crollo del metabolismo lipidico. Ma più di un fattore di rischio potrebbe causare problemi. Ad esempio, un sistema PPAR geneticamente indebolito da sola non potrebbe causare la malattia, ma combinandolo con una scarsa lattina dieta. In queste condizioni, il corpo è “innescato” per l’insorgenza della malattia, che viene poi attivato sia da un agente patogeno (può essere qualsiasi) o traumi, o anche lo stress.
Infine, l’ipotesi lipidica spiega anche il motivo per cui la SM è più frequente nelle donne.
“Uomini e donne metabolizzano i grassi in modo diverso. Negli uomini, i problemi dei PPARs hanno più probabilità di verificarsi nel tessuto vascolare, che è il motivo per cui l’aterosclerosi è più frequente negli uomini. Ma a causa del modo donne metabolizzano grasso in modo diverso in relazione al loro ruolo riproduttivo, il loro metabolismo lipidico è più probabile che influenzare la produzione di mielina e del sistema nervoso centrale, che porta alla equivalente neurologica di aterosclerosi. MS è più prevalente nelle donne, così come l’aterosclerosi è più frequente negli uomini, ma questo quadro esclude nessuno dei due sessi di sviluppare l’altra malattia. “
Molto più ricerca è necessaria per comprendere appieno il ruolo dei PPARs nella SM, ma la Corthals spera che questa nuova comprensione della malattia potrebbe portare a nuovi trattamenti e le misure di prevenzione: “. Questo nuovo quadro fa una cura per la SM più vicino che mai”
E questo, caro lettore, è la parola magica: cura. Per la prima volta, mai, penso che ci potrebbe un giorno essere uno. Ancora meglio, potremmo essere in grado di prevenire la sclerosi multipla.

Treating Pediatric Epilepsy with Medical Cannabis: A Brief History

There has been a relatively recent surge of interest in using medical cannabis to treat pediatric epilepsy, which has created a firestorm between U.S. lawmakers and parents and caregivers, who are demanding access for their children. But the promise of cannabis treatment for epilepsy is nothing new – in fact, using cannabis to treat pediatric epilepsy was first brought to light thousands of years ago. Reflecting on this history may help understand the situation we’ve ended up in today.

Medical cannabis in ancient times

Cannabis was first used for medicinal purposes in China around 2700 BCE. Following suit, people in the Middle East, India, and Egypt also began incorporating cannabis into medical remedies. However, an Arabic physician named al-Mayusi is first credited with advocating for the use of cannabis to treat epilepsy in the 11th century.

East to West

Sir William Brooke O’Shaughnessy, considered the founder of medicinal marijuana, brought cannabis to Europe in the 19th century following his studies in India. He published a case report of a 40-day-old infant who he successfully treated with a cannabis tincture.

Following O’Shaughnessy’s findings, Sir William Gowers and Sir John Russel Reynolds treated epilepsy patients with cannabis as an adjunctive treatment to bromide, an anticonvulsant used at the time.

By the 20th century, cannabis had made its way to North America, and, in the 1930s and 1940s, researchers began studying cannabis compounds and isolating them for pharmaceuticals. However, in 1970, the US Controlled Substance Act prohibited cannabis use and production in response to a troubled sociocultural climate. So while science was making breakthroughs in understanding the molecular structure of cannabis compounds, those who could potentially benefit from the drug were prohibited from taking it.

However, science persisted, and a few clinical trials were conducted to test the safety and efficacy of cannabis for epilepsy. Sidney Cohen published the first study on cannabis and epilepsy in 1976.

Where we stand today

In the 1990s, researchers discovered how cannabis receptors work in the brain, a tremendous advancement in our understanding of how cannabis can be used to treat epilepsy. Additional research also showed that cannabidiol (CBD) was effective in reducing seizures in animal models as well as in human clinical trials.

But now it’s 2017, nearly 30 thirty years later. As a fallout from the infamous Drug War, medical cannabis use remains prohibited in many U.S. states; even in states where medical cannabis is legal, there are different rules and regulations that may limit access to the drug.

We are closer than ever to getting a clinically proven cannabis treatment approved by the FDA — which is its own potential controversy — but at least there are now several trials underway testing the effects of cannabis on pediatric epilepsy.

A doctor’s tools of the trade. Photo Credit: Andrew Malone
Fighting for their children
For some parents and caretakers, waiting a year or several years until drugs are FDA-approved is simply not good enough for their children who need help right now. Several anecdotal stories have emerged in the media in which parents and caretakers have traveled thousands of miles and risked legal consequences to obtain medical cannabis for their children.

A recent statement from the American Epilepsy Society (AES) offers the following for parents and caregivers: “The anecdotal reports of positive effects of the marijuana derivative CBD for some individuals with treatment-resistant epilepsy give reason for hope. However, we must remember that anecdotal reports alone are not sufficient to support treatment decisions…AES urges all people touched by epilepsy to consult with an epilepsy specialist and explore the many existing treatment options, so that they can make informed decisions with their specialist that weighs the risks and benefits of the different treatment options.”

Hopefully, in a year or two, we will realize a future of cannabis and pediatric epilepsy following the approval of new, cannabinoid-based therapies.

5 Diseases Marijuana Treats Better Than Prescription Drugs

We can all pretty much agree at this point that big pharama isn’t interested in curing people but interested in making money and having more customers. Our goal is to educated the world on the many great benefits marijuana has to offer. Here is a list of 5 diseases marijuana will actually treat more efficiently then the poison made by big pharma.

1. Epilepsy – The side effects of commonly prescribed epilepsy medications are enough to cause concern and seek alternative treatment in and of themselves.

Loss of appetite, exhaustion and depression are all related to popular prescription drugs like Clonazepam, Felbamate, Phenobarbital, Primidone and Tiagabine.

New studies are even revealing links between these prescriptions and psychoses. Marijuana however, can increase deteriorating appetites and aid restless users.

Also, depression is one of the commonly treated conditions marijuana  is known to enhance, so there’s lesser fear of increased risks.

2. Cancer – Not only does marijuana actually kill cancer cells, it inhibits the growth of cancerous tumors from the start. Cannabinoids actively attack these diseased cells, protecting users from experiencing more and more complications due to the illness.

Research has discovered that marijuana can actually deactivate the gene responsible for metastasizing cells into cancer, effectively ending the need for harsh radiation or chemotherapy treatments.

While marijuana might not be an end-all solution to cancer, scientists are positive its proactive properties slow and deteriorate any abnormal growths.

3. ADHD/ADD – The treatments for ADHD and ADD are extremely addictive and habit forming. The chances of prescription drug abuse are much higher than most other medical treatments.

Methamphetamines like Adderall, Ritalin and Vyvanse are dosed out to help quell the added stimulation and increase attention spans.

Adderall and Ritalin are commonly sold on the street as alternative forms of speed. If users do not truly need the medication, it gives them a jolt of energy that can last anywhere from six to eight hours.

Aside from the potential for abuse, these stimulant drugs have shown an increased risk of psychosis, including hallucinations. Marijuana can help to free up excess dopamine that causes the brain to be overstimulated, resulting in the ADHD/ADD diagnosis, without any harmful side effects or the potential for abuse.

4. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) – Prescription drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis are increasingly dangerous. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a statement to patients using the drug Gilenya, stating that the medication led to a substantially increased risk of brain infection.

The problem with many MS treatments is they are designed to block white blood cells from attacking nerves. Normally, white blood cells protect the body from infection and disease.

When they are being blocked by these prescription drugs, they leave users at a much higher risk of developing serious illnesses that could ultimately cause more damage than the MS.

A 50/50 mixture of CBD and THC extracts has been approved in the UK and more than 20 other countries as a safer, more effective treatment of the spasticity and pain associated with MS.

5. Fibromyalgia (FM) – Marijuana has been found to be more effective at relieving Fibromyalgia symptoms than all of the leading prescription drugs.

In a study conducted by The National Pain Foundation and, 1,300 FM patients were asked about their medical treatments. 379 participants admitted to using Marijuana therapy, and of that 379, 62% said the medication was “very effective” at reducing symptoms.

Compare that to the 10% of “very effective” results from Lyrica and Savella, and just 8% from Cymbalta.

Sorgente: 5 Diseases Marijuana Treats Better Than Prescription Drugs